Out & Back http://www.out-and-back.net Just another WordPress weblog Sun, 15 Dec 2013 15:19:50 +0000 en hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=3.1.3 Somerset Hills Awaits the Ike http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2753 http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2753#comments Tue, 21 Jun 2011 02:05:14 +0000 td http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2753 Early this spring, I had the good fortune to visit Somerset Hills Country Club to preview the Ike Stroke Play Championship for the Met Golfer.  Though it was a raw, wet day (as this photo of the Redan might suggest), I had a great time learning about how the club partnered with Tom Doak and Renaissance Golf to rejuvenate their golf course while steadfastly maintaining its historic Tillinghast character.

Somerset Hills is one of the truly special courses of the Met section. It has plenty of teeth for championship play but, more importantly, it’s navigable by the average golfer. Strategic width makes it an enjoyable driving course, while seventeen intact Tilly greens (and he was in an experimental mood here) provide a wonderful mix of both bold and subtle features. The design continually encourages creative approach play, and Renaissance’s Brian Slawnik and superintendent Ryan Tuxhorn have worked diligently to bring this aspect to the fore.

Jump on over to the MGA’s site for the story–here’s the link.

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“The Ben Cox 108″ http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2731 http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2731#comments Wed, 01 Jun 2011 13:34:12 +0000 td http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2731 Just wanted to put in a quick plug for a good cause. On June 20th, Jim Colton will be running a golf marathon at Ballyneal Golf Club–he hopes to play at least six full rounds (108 holes) before running out of daylight. Colton’s golf binge is to help offset the medical bills of club caddie Ben Cox, who was badly injured in a skiing accident this spring. So far, over $24,000 has been raised, but every little bit helps.

Many of the best clubs and courses in the country have generously donated rounds (see below for the list as of June 1) in what is shaping up to be a fantastic raffle–tickets are $50 each. For more details, visit Jim’s website.

1. One foursome at Ballyneal, going to the person who most accurately guesses the amount of strokes over par it will take Jim to complete 108 holes (only one guess per number, so if your first guess is taken, you will be assigned the next closest number).
2. Another foursome at Ballyneal
3. A foursome of golf at Dismal River in Mullen, NE
4. A foursome of golf at The Kingsley Club in Kingsley, MI
5 & 6. Two pairs of golf shoes from TRUE Linkswear – one pair of TRUE Tours and one pair of their new TRUE Stealths, to be raffled off individually
7. A threesome of golf and lunch with a member host at Hudson National Golf Club in New York
8. Two nights accommodation at Fairmont St Andrews, full Scottish breakfast each morning and 18 holes of golf on The Torrance or The Kittocks
9. A threesome of golf and lunch at the Olympic Club (Lake Course), site of the 1955, 1966, 1987, 1998 and 2012 U.S. Opens. Also includes round at par-3 Cliffs Course, time and schedule permitting.
10. A threesome of golf and caddies at Skokie Country Club
11. A twosome of golf at Merion Golf Club’s East Course, site of the 2013 U.S. Open. Includes tour of the club archives and lunch or dinner.
12. A foursome of golf at East Lake Golf Club, site of The Tour Championship.
13. A threesome of golf at Riviera Country Club, site of the 1948 U.S. Open, 1983 and 1995 PGA Championships and home of the PGA Tour’s Northern Trust Open.
14. A twosome of golf at Erin Hills Golf Club, site of the 2011 U.S. Amateur and the 2017 U.S. Open.
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Double Feature: “Taking Off” and “Mile-High Marvels” http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2719 http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2719#comments Mon, 18 Apr 2011 14:55:07 +0000 td http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2719 Here’s some Monday lunch break reading: A couple of pieces of my recent work are now available in digital form.

First up is my cover story in Links magazine about the fiftieth anniversaries of the 1961 Masters and Open Championship, and how these two events pushed golf toward becoming the global sport that it is today.

I had a great time working on this piece, in part because it gave me the opportunity to interview both Gary Player and The King himself. I’m not sure how to navigate directly to the feature, but it is on page 68 of the new Spring issue, located in the center of the homepage.

Visit http://www.linksmagazine.com/

Next up, fans of Tom Doak may enjoy a travel feature I filed for the Met Golfer on two of his Colorado layouts–Ballyneal and CommonGround. They make for an excellent study in contrasts and a good base around which to build an itinerary in and around Denver. This piece also features photography (see below) from my friend Jim Colton, who introduced me to this great club last summer. Here’s the link straight to the feature.

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CNN Travel: “World’s Best Golf Destinations” http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2707 http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2707#comments Wed, 06 Apr 2011 02:09:57 +0000 td http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2707 Today the CNN Travel home page picked up a feature I wrote for the current issue of Departures magazine. The headline, which my editor described as “SEO-ified”, is a bit of a blunt instrument–basically, the magazine just asked me to pick out some of the best places that epitomize various aspects of the game, whether it be golf-and-spa getaways, favorite traditions, or the best place to introduce a kid to the game.

Each entry’s headline has been removed by CNN so it’s more of a laundry list, but whatever. It’s still a fun story, I think. I write for Departures regularly, but since it’s a luxury title not sold on the newsstand or by subscription, the work usually doesn’t reach a wider audience. So that’s nice, even if some of the comments on the post are hilarious…I’m disappointed no one’s mentioned the dated stock photo of Pinehurst No. 2 yet!)


Edit: Janeen Driscoll, formerly of the Pinehurst media relations office, writes in to point out that the photo is actually of Pinehurst No. 4, and isn’t especially dated for that course. So I stand corrected! (Even though I had no idea that CNN was even going to run this story, much less what their photo desk would decide to run along with it…)


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“The Timeless Swing”: Tom Watson http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2692 http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2692#comments Sat, 26 Mar 2011 16:34:17 +0000 td http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2692 I don’t usually review golf instructionals (I feel like Dos Equis’ “Most Interesting Man in the World” saying that), but when I learned that Tom Watson had a new book coming out, I couldn’t resist pouncing on a review copy. Like most golfers, I’ve always admired Watson–there always seemed to be an unimpeachable rightness to how he went about his business.

All of that was reinforced, of course, when Watson, at the age of 59, came within one bad links bounce of winning the 2009 Open at Turnberry. For me, the thing that made that run so meaningful wasn’t the nostalgia trip for Baby Boomers who remembered him in his prime, but that he gave a whole new generation a glimpse of his rare talent, rarer longevity, and an exemplary graciousness in defeat. It was the sports story of the year, and a gift to golf.

Anyway, I went into reading this book with a pretty firm belief that Tom Watson is not a guy who is going to mess up your golf game. As a teenager first learning to play in the early ’90s, I studied an earlier Watson instructional–which I still have on my bookshelf–called Getting Back to Basics (pictured below). The new book is The Timeless Swing, and it’s also written with longtime collaborator Nick Seitz, an editor at Golf Digest.

It’s been said that rarely do old bottles contain new wine, and that is certainly the case here. The Timeless Swing is perhaps not as wordy as the previous book, which might improve its clarity in places, but otherwise the two books are pretty similar. Fundamentals like grip, alignment, stance and posture are all given their proper treatment, often in a way that mirrors its predecessor–but guess what? This is a really reassuring thing. It shows that Watson isn’t trying to reinvent the wheel, that the things that are truly important to playing good golf don’t change over time.

What has changed (for the better) is the visual presentation. Much as I respect the late Anthony Ravielli, who illustrated Getting Back to Basics, his work in that book was not at the level of his all-time classic Fundamentals of Hogan, and the green-on-black two-tone design is pretty jarring and distracting to look at today. In the new book, Dom Furore’s color photos of Watson going through his paces make a big difference–the layouts in general feel fresh, modern, and much more appealing. The book even features a handful of those newfangled smartphone tags–3D bar codes that launch Youtube videos of Watson’s demonstrations. These videos complement the book beautifully and are an excellent use of the technology–I only wish that there had been more of them.

“Golf fans think the tour pros are on the practice range sharing secret insights to the swing and working on esoteric keys to which they, average golfers, are not privy. They’d love to listen in. Well, I’m afraid we’re not hiding anything so intriguing or revolutionary. We’re out there working on tried and proven fundamentals, by the hour. When our games go off, the cause almost always is a lapse in our fundamentals.”

This passage appears on page 12 of The Timeless Swing, and it pretty well describes the book’s mission. There is nothing here that will trigger a revolution in golf swing theory, and not much that experienced golfers probably haven’t encountered before (though I learned a few things about Watson’s personal approach–like zeroing in on his target by visualizing field goal posts down the fairway). But again, that’s what makes this book so good. It’s equally a primer for beginners and a worthwhile refresher course for low-handicappers. The Timeless Swing may be conservative in its approach, but it’s well-measured, clear in its instruction, and fundamentally trustworthy, not unlike the Man from Kansas City himself. I should probably mention that I’m the furthest thing from a golf professional, but my sense is that the concepts Watson and Seitz outline in The Timeless Swing can only help one’s game. As a new golf season approaches here in the northeast, I was glad to have Watson’s help in reviewing the basics.


The Timeless Swing, by Tom Watson and Nick Seitz, goes on sale March 29. Atria Books, $29.99.

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Video: The Restoration of Pinehurst No. 2 http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2670 http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2670#comments Thu, 17 Mar 2011 13:07:32 +0000 td http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2670

The Restoration of Pinehurst No. 2 from outandback on Vimeo.

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A Spion Kop in Savannah http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2662 http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2662#comments Wed, 09 Mar 2011 20:05:15 +0000 td http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2662 As this old T+L Golf article might indicate, I’m fascinated by the anachronistic quasi-template hole known as the Spion Kop.

Historian Sean Tully recently found a hole by that name at Savannah Golf Club in a 1905 issue of Golfers Magazine. I’ve heard reference to a small handful of American Kops, but this is the first image I’ve seen that’s contemporaneous with the events of the Boer War that gave the hole its name.

The Kop depicted in this picture looks more like a manmade mound than one of the natural outcroppings and eminences commonly used for Kop greens across the pond, but it’s nevertheless an excellent find. Thanks, Sean!

Any further information about Savannah GC and the fate of its Kop hole would, of course, be much appreciated.

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“THE SEA IS IN US”: Geoffrey Cornish on the Making of Highlands Links http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2589 http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2589#comments Sat, 26 Feb 2011 16:05:10 +0000 td http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2589

Geoffrey Cornish, now ninety-six years of age, is the dean of American golf architects. While researching this week’s Golf World feature on Highlands Links, the recently-damaged 1939 Stanley Thompson gem on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, it occurred to me that few could put the place in perspective better than the man in charge of building it.

And that would be none other than Geoffrey Cornish. I emailed a few questions to his partner, Mark Mungeam, who printed them and delivered them to Mr. Cornish’s assistant, Lori, who then typed up this handwritten reply:

TD: What was the construction process like at Highlands Links? What was your role in it?

GC: I was construction superintendent under Hennie Henderson in 1938 but in charge in 1939.

What kind of personality did Mr. Thompson exude as an architect? Any memories or anecdotes of him would be so very valuable.

Known as the TORONTO TERROR there has never been as creative a course architect as Stan.

The development of Highlands Links has been described as a Depression-era make-work project. What was that corner of Cape Breton Island like in the 1930s? How did the local people take to the course?

They were all fishermen. They adopted the course and were proud of it.

How did working on Highlands Links influence your own career as an architect?

Stan was a tough guy to work for but he tried to educate us in a rough way.  I am forever grateful.

The golf course was badly damaged by storms last December. Can you give us a sense of what Highlands Links means to golf in Canada? How much would it mean to you for the course to receive the repairs and restoration it needs?

Cape Breton in my opinion ranks among the world’s greatest.  It is of paramount importance that it receives the repairs needed.

The construction crew of Highlands Links. Geoffrey Cornish is pictured far right, in white shirt and tie.

Before answering the questions above, Mr. Cornish also sent me some general recollections of those early days on Cape Breton, as well as a toast to the Toronto Terror himself. I’ll reproduce the following verbatim, with my sincerest thanks to Mr. Cornish for reaching back into the memory banks for this:

“In the first years of construction 1938, Henny Henderson, Stan’s Engineer was in charge of construction over me.  In the second year I was in charge at Cape Breton with ROBBIE ROBINSON over me and also GREEN GABLES on P.E.I.

In the years of THE GREAT DEPRESSION the fishermen of Cape Breton and P.E.I. had food aplenty from fishing and their small but productive farms.  Yet there was no cash.  This created problems galore.  Stan Thompson sold Ottawa on the concept of building two great courses one on Cape Breton and one on P.E.I. with the use of bulldozers and steam shovels limited to a few hours a day.  The system worked with the Highlands built by men moving most of the earth by shovel and wheelbarrow.  The fishermen were dedicated, to say the least.  Asked why they always added an extra touch the answer was:


Stan was something of an eccentric and an immensely patriotic CANADIAN.  He made and spent fortunes.  On his death the OTTAWA CITIZEN eulogized “no one has created a finer set of memorials from coast to coast than Stan Thompson”.


“Here’s to you STAN THOMPSON person of Canadian significance.  You may have been a tyrant; yet you never spared yourself.  You served with distinction in the trenches in THE GREAT WAR one of the most diabolic experiences our species has dreamed up.  Returning to Canada you created several of world’s greatest golf courses and added magic to even the most modest.  You were pure genius Stan; yet as the Roman emperor said pure genius is always accompanied by a touch of madness.”

The third hole at Highlands Links. Photo: Ian Andrew

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Stoneforest International: Golf in the Chinese Badlands http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2617 http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2617#comments Thu, 24 Feb 2011 03:14:17 +0000 td http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2617 In case you haven’t heard, golf in China is sort of taking off these days. Last year we heard from Dave Zinkand of Coore & Crenshaw on their new project in “China’s Hawaii”, and the other day I learned about Stoneforest, a three-course complex from Lee Schmidt and Brian Curley in a crazy rockscape that reminds me more than a little bit of the Badlands.

While the first thing that leaps to mind in viewing these pictures is how long it’ll take for someone to get beaned by a Mach 1 rebound off of one of these formations, Brian Curley says there’s room to play. “The photos focus on the rock but there is plenty of turf,” he said in an email.

Stoneforest is located in Yunnan Province, which is in the south-central interior of the country and shares borders with Burma, Laos and Vietnam. “This region is all cool season grasses,” Curley says. “So it will have bent grass fairways tees, greens. That is the reason so many Yunnan area courses get ranked so highly.”

I can’t sign off on this post without also sharing a few highlights from Stoneforest’s website. In fairness, it’s pretty well done, with few egregious examples of the “Chinglish” that can be so entertaining to English-speaking visitors, but nevertheless there are a few enjoyable turns of phrase:

“The Stoneforest International Country Club is a comprehensive leisure cluster that integrates sports, races, health preservation, culture, entertainments, delicacies, businesses, exhibitions and accommodation into one and also the first full membership golf club in southwest China. ”

“The layered Karst landform is so fascinating. The scattering strange stones and elegant stones are like exquisite bonsai, being more beautiful than people can take in.”

I’ve honestly plumbed the depths looking for a witty comment and came up empty-handed. Existentially speaking, this one is iron-clad.

“Stoneforest International Country Club is an exclusive golf club open to member only that integrates natural ecology, golf and features of high-end life into one. While creating a unique culture as a place for the intellectual and wealthy circles, it makes you feel the comfort and calm while immersing yourself in the nature and in the Stone Forest like cultivating dhyana and one’s morality. It is the common perfect state you and I are pursuing together.”

Hey, speak for yourself, buddy! And now for the payoff pitch:

“Stoneforest International Country Club becomes a model of favorable climate, fabulous geographical position and support of the people because of our rock-solid true faith, star-like illuminating expectation for perfection and our moon-like bright mind.”

YES. American copywriters, take note. This is what they call confidence in your product. “7,200-yard championship course”? “Playable for all skill levels”? “Five sets of tees”? Please. If your copy can’t convince the Rev. Sun Myung Moon to cut a check and become a member, you’re not trying hard enough.

Photos: Ryan Farrow.

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“The Nature Faker”: Excerpt from New Biography of William Flynn http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2603 http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2603#comments Wed, 23 Feb 2011 17:47:22 +0000 td http://www.out-and-back.net/?p=2603 Philadelphia golf historians Wayne S. Morrison and Thomas E. Paul have released The Nature Faker, a biography of William Flynn, the creative force behind courses such as Shinnecock Hills, Philadelphia Country Club, and the Cascades course at Virginia’s Homestead Resort. Weighing in at an astonishing 2,200 pages, the word “comprehensive” would be an understatement. Because of its completist bent, the book is being published on CD-ROM. With a price tag of $75, it seems primarily intended to reach an audience of historians and hardcore architecture aficionados. For more information on The Nature Faker, email Mr. Morrison at wsmorrison@hotmail.com.

Here’s the introduction to the book:

In the fall of 2001, the discovery of a nearly complete collection of William S. Flynn’s original course drawings initiated an intense study into the work of one of the great yet least known golf architects of all time.  Prior to this event, there was little material available for a proper study of his designs and far less known about Flynn himself.  Numerous conflicting stories made it nearly impossible to know which courses Flynn designed or which he contributed redesign work.  On those courses reliably attributed to Flynn, there was little proof or understanding of what remained on the ground of Flynn’s original design efforts.  Years after Flynn’s death two of his employees took credit for two of his greatest designs, Shinnecock Hills Golf Club and Indian Creek Country Club.  Yet, over the course of nine years, the authors, with invaluable assistance from Flynn’s daughter, Constance Lagerman and from golf architects and researchers dedicated to the study of the evolution of golf architecture in America, have assembled the greatest collection of architectural drawings and photographs of any pre-World War II golf architect.

No longer elusive, the drawings, aerial and ground photographs, archival materials and interviews shed a bright light on the outstanding accomplishments of one of golf’s greatest talents, both agronomic and architectural.  The historical record of Flynn’s efforts is now well established.  A study of this record and a look at the culture of the times is presented here.  Some club myths and oral traditions will, in some cases, be shattered including those from some of the most historic courses in America.

The authors’ intention is to avoid considering the historical record with a modern perspective.  We ought to understand the culture of these sporting clubs, their patrons and memberships in a manner that is contemporary with their times. The era between World War I and the Great Depression was an era of rapid change in America.  The arts and sciences were making great strides.  It was also a time of explosive growth in the popularity of golf outside of Scotland. Nowhere was there a greater explosion in the number of courses than in the United States.  Golf was moving from the links land of Scotland inland near urban centers.  Suburban Philadelphia, like suburban London a decade or so before, was becoming one of the great centers of golf and golf architecture.  It was in Philadelphia where William Flynn established his design business.  Many of the great courses in this golf-rich metropolis are the works of this American architect and of others in what has become known as the “Philadelphia School” of golf architecture.

Why study the works of William Flynn?  The career inventory of courses now attributed to William Flynn is among the strongest of any architect.  Routing a golf course is the basis for all that is to follow.  Desmond Muirhead wrote, “Routing is the bones, everything else is flesh.”  Flynn may very well have been the greatest router of golf courses of all time.  The authors intend to demonstrate how Flynn’s routing tendencies differed from golf architects that preceded him as well as his contemporaries.  An analysis of the contemporary designs proposals of Donald Ross and William Flynn for the Country Club of York provides a unique insight into routing and design preferences.  Flynn was an innovative designer, among the most creative during the greatest period of golf architecture in history.  Prior to a career in golf architecture, Flynn was one of the first outstanding golf course superintendents in America applying modern scientific methods to planting and maintaining turf for golf courses.  Flynn launched the careers of some of the most influential superintendents to follow.  He was an early experimenter of grass strains and their utilization in turf for golf.  He lectured on agronomy at Pennsylvania State University and wrote important pieces for the United States Golf Association Green Section.  William Flynn routed his golf courses to use as much of the natural features on hand as possible.

Long before giant bulldozers and bigger budgets allowed the moving of great quantities of earth to shape the land to the architect’s vision, Flynn envisioned what nature provided.  When he needed to create strategy or simply provide drainage, he did so in a way that mimicked nature.  Studying a Flynn course requires careful consideration because unlike many early architects, Flynn tried to hide much of his work, especially in the mid-bodies of holes, by making his architectural constructs appear natural.  He called himself the Nature Faker.

William Flynn was an Irish Catholic native of Boston yet was accepted into Philadelphia society the once exclusive bastion of white Anglo-Saxon Protestants.  The term WASP was coined in Philadelphia by sociologist E. Digby Balzell.  Flynn was the only non-Philadelphian in the “Philadelphia School” of golf architecture, a band of talented friends which included George Crump, George Thomas, Albert Tillinghast and Hugh Wilson.  Flynn was the only true full-time professional architect in the group although recent evidence indicates that Tillinghast accepted design fees at an earlier stage of his design career than previously thought.  The other members of the “school” never accepted a fee for their work and were amateurs in the strictest sense.

As a boy, Flynn was an outstanding student and athlete.  As a schoolboy, Flynn was both a friend and competitor of Francis Ouimet.  Flynn came to Philadelphia as a hired contractor but through a remarkable work ethic evolved into an extraordinary agronomist, golf course superintendent and finally golf course architect.  As his career evolved, Flynn became friendly with some of the first families in America including the Rockefeller, Trippe, Tyng, McLean and Geist families.  Later, as a paid golf course architect, Flynn was considered a professional in all matters related to golf thus he competed as a professional in Philadelphia district tournaments.

With all of these accomplishments, why does William Stephen Flynn remain such a relative unknown?   He was not an accomplished self-promoter nor did he seem to posses a grand ego.  Three advertisements were run in 1916 editions of The American Golfer for the Flynn and Peters, Golf Architects and Grass Experts Company.  There is no evidence that he chose to advertise his design firm after the brief run of 1916 advertisements nor is there evidence of advertisements for the Toomey and Flynn construction firm.  Flynn stumbled at seeking a letter of reference from J.D. Rockefeller, Jr. for advertising purposes.  His communication with Rockefeller clearly was evidence of an inexperienced marketing mind. Perhaps the most significant factor leading to his relatively low profile, Flynn only took on a few projects a year so that he could devote himself fully to those projects at hand.  His career inventory is far smaller than many of his contemporaries.  This allowed a distinct handcrafted effort to Flynn’s projects even when extraordinarily large engineering efforts were involved.

We hope that this book will detail Flynn’s outstanding work in many aspects of golf and lead to a greater understanding of his contributions to the game.  A thorough examination of the courses of William Flynn through his drawings and his writings will enable the reader to better appreciate his artistry and his genius.  When the true stories of Flynn’s accomplishments in golf are known, it is expected that William Flynn will no longer be the unknown genius in American golf.

The authors set about to learn about William Flynn and the evolution of golf in America.  We spoke with historians and members of clubs associated with Flynn, read numerous golf books regarding early golf architecture as well as the period known as the Golden Age of golf course architecture (1910 to World War II) and obtaining research materials wherever they existed; in barns, in basements behind boilers and other unlikely places. Yet, there was precious little to learn about William Flynn.  Even in Philadelphia, where Flynn worked on some twenty-six courses, few knew very much about him; he was golf’s mystery man.  Through the years some of the reasons for this would become apparent. Fortunately, we met Flynn’s daughter, Constance Lagerman, living in suburban Philadelphia.  Mrs. Lagerman has been instrumental in assisting our efforts to know Flynn the architect and the man.

Originally published in 1981 as The Golf Course and later released as The Architects of Golf, this seminal work by Geoffrey Cornish and Ronald Whitten explored the work of golf architects throughout the world.  There we found a brief biography and a course list much of which was provided by Connie Lagerman.  Here was an excellent place to start.  In the late 1990s we gratefully welcomed a book by Geoff Shackelford entitled The Golden Age of Golf Design.  It was then that we began to understand the collaborative nature of the Philadelphia School of golf design and understand Flynn’s place among such distinguished men of golf.  Merion Cricket Club’s decision to create a new golf course in 1910 set in motion the most innovative design school in the history of golf.  The embodiment of the school’s ideas and their collaborative laboratory was expressed at the Pine Valley Golf Club across the Delaware River from Philadelphia. As Geoff Shackelford states;

“It was their most visible classroom and the inspiration that made the Philadelphia School of Design, if not the most prolific, certainly the most creative, daring and influential of all the schools of design.”

Flynn diagram of the first hole at Merion (East).

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